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In 1127, Emperor Huizong of Song and the capital Bianjing were captured during the Jin–Song Wars.
The remnants of the Song retreated to southern China.
The Song dynasty also saw a revival of Confucianism, in response to the growth of Buddhism during the Tang, However, the military weakness of the Song army was observed by the Jurchen Jin dynasty.
Governed by the Communist Party of China, it exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing) and the Special Administrative Regions Hong Kong and Macau, also claiming sovereignty over Taiwan.
China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain.
Both the ROC and PRC continue to claim to be the legitimate government of all China, though the latter has more recognition in the world and controls more territory.
Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing. China is also a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), the BCIM and the G20.